Molecular biology of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) is a key factor in many processes which might be important for general homeostasis. VDRs tend to be found in a variety of skin cells, including monocytes, dendritic skin cells, macrophages, neutrophils, keratinocytes, and epithelial cells.

The vitamin D receptor is a nuclear receptor that is triggered by the vitamin D hormone. This can be a receptor that varieties a heterodimer with the retinoid X receptor. The products of the vitamin D complex together with the RXR ends in the activation of a number of intracellular signaling pathways. These pathways generate immediate answers independent of the transcriptional response of target genes.

VDRs can also be thought to mediate the effects of calciferol on bone fragments maintenance. This is supported by the relationship between calcaneus density and VDR radio alleles in individuals. In addition , several VDR concentrate on genes have been completely identified, including calcium-binding meats, calbindin D-9k and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 24-hydroxylase.

Many studies currently have investigated the word of VDR in various cells. For instance, confocal microscopy has shown VDR nuclear staining in human cortex cells. Additionally , VDR has been diagnosed in white-colored matter oligodendrocytes. These studies have generated the speculation that calcium-dependent platelet account activation may be regulated by fast non-genomic effects of VDR in mitochondria.

In addition to vitamin D, VDRs have been suggested as a factor in regulation of calcium homeostasis in the intestinal tract. Nevertheless , the exact system is not yet known. Various elements, including environmental exposures and genetic factors, may regulate VDR term.